Germany's District Court of Cologne banned circumcision of male children, upsetting leaders from the Muslim and Jewish faiths as well as the German Medical Association.
Threatening to prosecute parents, the court ruled that circumcision "for the purpose of religious upbringing constitutes a violation of physical integrity."
The chief rabbi of Lower Saxony called the decision "beyond the imagination."
A leader of Berlin's Katijah Mosque worried some families would circumcise boys under unsafe conditions abroad.
The German Medical Association president said the ruling brings into question the rights of parents on a variety of issues.
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